Date. 2nd January 2023
Project management is performed by people who describe, organize, and monitor the work of project activities using a set of tools and techniques. Project managers are those whose responsibility is to manage the processes involved in a project and who carry out the project activities using necessary the tools and techniques. Using these techniques leads to many advantages in organizing projects.
Programme is a group of projects, managed by employing similar techniques in an organized way. Programme may include aspects of on-going operations as well. An example would be of a very large programme with many subprojects under it like building a new shopping mall. Many subprojects exist under this programme. These might for example be excavation, construction, interior design, store placement, marketing, facilities management, etc. Each of the subprojects is basically itself a project. Each subproject has its own project manager, who is reporting to a project manager holding responsibility over several of the areas, who also has to report to the head project manager over the entire programme. Once this structure is built, the facility management is considered the on-going operations part of this programme.
Many skills and techniques are involved in project management. According to the PMBOK, “Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.” Ensuring project management techniques are used effectively is the responsibility of the project manager.
The PMBOK, or Project Management Body of Knowledge, published by the Project Management Institute. The PMBOK “methodology” is actually a framework of established project management industry standards for standards, conventions, processes, best practices, terminologies, and recommendations for managing project more efficiently.
This was introduced in 1997 in Eliyahu M. Goldratt’s book, Critical Chain, where he described the methodology as a technique of planning and managing projects that strives to keep resources leveled. It is different from other methodologies in a way that it focuses on resources rather than on the method itself and makes sure that the project plan is feasible enough and completed on time.
This is one of the simplest, not to forget, oldest project management techniques and tools known to manage projects. It is also referred to as Software Development Life Cycle that focuses on making a solid plan and effective execution. The Waterfall methodology is sequential, which means one task has to be completed before the next starts in the pipeline. Here, all the requirements must be defined in the beginning so that there is proper planning and organization of a project plan.
Every project is made up of various small and big tasks that can overwhelm both project managers and team members at first glance. This is why planning is an essential element in project management and more essential than that, is project breakdown before the execution process starts. This project management technique makes bigger, complex tasks organized by breaking them into smaller and more manageable.
It is another one of the most important project management techniques and tools. The Critical Path Method of managing projects and visualizing the project plan includes mapping out all the sequential steps that are going to help you achieve the end result. While figuring out the smartest way to the ultimate goal, you will realize that there might be more than one pathway leading to the resulting goal. While pursuing this method of project management. Therefore, in the Critical path method, you take up the plan that has the least amount of milestones and also takes the least amount of time for project completion. It is an extension of PERT where the emphasis is placed on strategic scheduling and smart decision-making.
The Scrum framework is a part of the Agile methodology. Scrum helps teams focus on real priorities and the immediate requirements of the clients. This technique helps you leverage effective communication, teamwork, and speed of development in a project. In Scrum methodology, a team is often led by a scrum master that is also called Subject Matter Expert (SME), who is responsible for inculcating the values of the Agile methodology within the team. This way the team is able to make way for seamless collaboration and a goal-oriented mindset.
This methodology is one of the most popular project management tools and techniques. It uses the ‘sprint approach’ where you can break a project in the form of sprints or cycles. As the word ‘agile’ means the ability to move quickly and respond swiftly to changes, likewise, this methodology makes way for flexibility and collaboration. It is extensively used in software development and is best suited for small software projects that require frequent communication and the need to work together for working on innovative projects.
Kanban methodology is a visual way for controlling the flow of work through a process. Kanban shows both the workflow and the actual work going through it. Kanban aims to locate possible bottlenecks in your process and eliminate them. Allowing work to move through it efficiently and cost-effectively at a high throughput. The first Kanban system was introduced by Industrial engineer and businessman Taiichi Ohno for Toyota automobiles in Japan. It was developed as a straightforward planning system with the goal of efficiently controlling, managing work and inventory at every step of production. It is one of the best project monitoring tools and techniques.
Adaptive project framework or adaptive project management is a cross between Agile project management as well as change management. It allows the team to set fallback systems and fail-safes so that the project keeps running smoothly with one successful iteration after the other.
Extreme programming is an approach to project management where every principle of Agile is put into motion, every practice of the Scrum framework is practiced, and beyond that, every great coding practice is followed as well.
In this project management process, the emphasis is made on the user requirements and the coding and deployment aspect of the project as a whole.
Change Management Project Planning Techniques:
These types of project management techniques and tools are used in highly complex projects where uncertainty is high. It takes a more casual and optimistic approach for planning a project and emphasizes less formality in the company’s culture. The extreme title is owed to an opportunity for flexible planning and unorthodox tactics.
The Event Chain Methodology, the team works identifying events, milestones, tasks, and more. However, the team works on determining as well as defining the relationship between said tasks. This helps simplify everything. It is like putting a risk management plan that has been set into place by the project manager.
PRINCE2 is an acronym for Projects in Controlled Environments. It is a project management methodology that is made up of principles and processes. Originated in the UK, Prince2 is an articulately stated methodology in which a project is divided into multiple levels and stages, each having its own set of steps to be followed.
Process-based project management is a systematic and strategic strategy that recognizes the project’s goal and aligns it with the mission, vision, and core values of the company. This methodology emphasizes better collaboration between various departments within the company to achieve common goals.
PERT is a project management technique that helps with calculating the estimated time it will take to complete a project. Both scheduling and budgeting are essential components of any project.
PERT charts are tools used to schedule tasks in a project, which makes it easier for team members to coordinate to accomplish the work. With PERT, you get three different time estimates for the project, the most optimistic time estimate, the most probable time estimate, and the most pessimistic time estimate.
Rational Unified Process is an agile software development method, in which the life cycle of a project, or the development of software, is divided into four phases. These phases include modelling, analysis and design, implementation, testing, and application, among other activities. These types of project management technologies and tools are agile and iterative, which means they are repeated. Iterative because the entire project repeats the process’ fundamental steps.
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Construction- Quantity Surveyor- Valuer/ Appraiser. Project Management
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